Nrtn hevbe girovn reseniya gelan in

 

Mihemed EL, efrin2612@hotmail.com 

 

 

 

Di dirjahiya hezarsala syemn de, Somer serperetn tekane yn  Mezopotamyay bn. By em li ser resen wan tkevin gengeiyan, ew gel her xurt b ku desthilatdariya xwe ber zayn bi 3500 salan, heke ne ber v drok be j, li w herm dupat kirib.

 Someriyan xwe bi nav K-en-gir dinavandin, ji ziman xwe re j digot E-me-gir, nijada xwe j wek Sag-gi-ga, dinavand, ew j t wateya kesn xwed seriyn re. Gotina Somer ji navandina Babiliyan ji bar Mezopotamiy (Shumerum) re hatiye daritin. Ziman Someriyan ne Sam ye, an j ta roja ro tkel tu zimann din e -bi kmas ji hla rziman bastr ve- ji bil end gotinn ku di hin zimann njen de tn dtin, wek nejar (dartira) kurs, wek padaeka datv di Kurd de (re), ev j girov e ku Somer ne wek hin xelekn derzanist dibjin, teqez ji ser ry zemn hatine birandin! Girmana her xurt  ew e ku pit serweriya Someriyan tk , Somer di nav geln ew dagir kirine de heliyane, l bel bandora anda wan berbiav e, ango ew ji hla ramyar ve heliyane l ji hla aristan ve demek dirj di nav geln din de berdewam kirine bandoreke xurt li ser hin civakan ta roja ro htine.

Someriyan bi sedan efsane destann, ku ro bne giroveke zrekiya mirovantiy bi git Someriyan bi taybet, ji nifn paeroj re htin. Di van efsane destanan de mirov hem quncikn ku nsan dixwaze tbigihje dibne, ji mirin bigir heya pergala avabna gerdn...

Yek ji efsaneyn navdar mit wje brnas, efsaneya mirina damezrner bineeya (soleleta) syemn ya Ur, Urnamu ye. Ji v serdem re, ku sitrka Urnamu t de birs, serdema vejnbna Someriyan j t gotin.

Pit dused sal ku serpertiya Someriyan t de ketib bin siya dagrkeriya Akadiyan pitre ya Gtiyan, mrek Somer bi nav Utu-Khingal li bajar Uruk ser xwe dora sala 2120an B.Z li dij Gtiyan hilda welat Someriyan li bar raqa ron rizgar kir. Pit hin peresnn siyas, serlekerek Utu-Khingal bi nav Urnamu li bajar Ur ser xwe li dij salar xwe hilda serdemek n li tevahiya Meyopotamiya dest p kir. Di serdema desthilatdariya Urnamu de(2013-2095) ne ten ramyar, l hem biwarn jiyan li Meyopotamiya ji n ve p ketin serbilindiya Someriyan veger demn ber. Urnamu bi dehan xebat avahiyn nemir peyda dikirin, li rex ku b yek ji mezintirn kesayetiyn Someriyan di serdema bineeya syemn de. Hjay gotin ye ku yekemn zagona birkpk li chan ji aliy Urnamu - ne Hammurab ve wek ku t bawerkirin - hatiye berhevkirin weandin.

Wek nan ji mezinbn jhatbna Urnamu re, pit ku mir tu kes nikarb valahiya ku mirina w htib dagirta, wisa j tevahiya mparatoriya Someriyan pit hetdeh salan ji desthilatdariya Urnamu tk.

Ji ber ku mirina Urnamu hem nkev hem j ziyaneke mezin b, hem milet Somer rondik li ser barandin efsaneya her nemir sebaret bi mirina w li ser kilaveyn kl hat nivsandin.

Efsaneya mirina Urnamu daketina w ya zrzemn, salixa mirina Urnamu byern ku v re pitre derketine hol bi zimanek felsef wjey dide. Gotinn ziman hatiye bikarann hnandina wjey destnan dikin iqas hing and di askeke payebilind de b, iqas nivskar efsaney ji paey xwe ji welat xwe hez dikir!

Efsane bi basn lomeyan dest p dike. Tev ku Urnamu pir perestgeh avah ji xwedawendan re ava kiribn j, l van xwedawendan dsa znat neheq li w kir! Ew di klkek derwext de mir by xwedawend li ser qenc rajeyn w bisekinin, daw li jiyana w an. V helwesta xwedawendan ht nivskar efsaney tkeve nav z gumanan ku xwedawend ne dadwer in, ev wne j diyardeyeke n di civaka Someriyan de derp dike, imk anans e ku ew civakek oldar ji hla tgna ol ve paver b. Pitre efsane r-resmn binaxkirina Urnamu ngar dike, bi weyek ku hem dab nrtn ol ku li Somer peyda bn raber dibin.

Heft xzn destpk ji efsaney, heyama erjeng sawa ku bi mirina Urnamu re derketibn hol tne ziman.[1]

Hem  zemn mat segete ma. Qonaq avah hatin hilweandin, baredoxeke tirs saw li nav xwediyn seriyn re belav b. ivan dilsoz mir, Orm ht ivan dilsoz bimire...

Li gor xzn 8-16 ji efsaney ev betara ku bi ser ser Somer de hatiye, sedema guhartina arensa Urnamu ji hla An Anll ve ye, li raber helwesta van herdu xwedawendan, xwedawendn j din wek Nnax, Ank, Nana Utu nikarbn titek ji bil gir lorandin bikin.

Ji ber ku An gotinn xwe yn pesert yekcar guhartibn, ew bb kesek vala xaponek. Anll bext arensa ku bi xwe nivsandib guhart. Nnax dest bi naln lorandin kir, deriyn mezin bajar rd hat girtin. An Utu li ezman xuya nebn, tav mit xemgn b...

Xzn 17-30 ji efsaney li ser hikah xelaya bi mirina Urnamu re li Ur derket hol, disekinin.

Ji ber arensa kirt ku ji bo Urnamu jatib biryarkirin, ivan rasteqn hat kutin, xelk giya kes nema radize, hem rojn xwe di lorandinde de ji bo ivan dilsoz, ku dl e derbas dikirin. Col xendekn avdan bi ml heriy hatin xetimandin. Dexil tene nema zl didin, xak ji tovan ve hat hilkirin, zeviyn and wenda bn, l bizir bn...

Pit salixandina rew dareta Ur di pey mirina Urnamu re, xzn 31-42 li ser nr sedemn mirina w disekinin, l mixabin ne bi teeyek pen diyar. Digel v yek j, ji nav xzan dixuye ku Urnamu di erek dijwar de birndar bye pitre miriye berve goristana Ur hatiye nihartin.

ivan perest, di er pevneke dijwar de... padah Somer... salar, padah bmar ket... hat kilkirin. ivan rasteqn, r Somer gewre, Urnamu padah gewre y zemn, berve Ur ket ser milan, hate nihartin...

Efsane di xzn 43-51an de li ser karwana darbesta Urnamu radiweste, awa ku li seraya w t dann bo hevmal xwediviyn w cara dawn l bimeyiznin.

Seriy mezin li seraya xwe hat dann, Urnamuy hezkir ji hla xwedan lekern xwe ve ser hilneda...salar di hminiyeke tekz de dirjkir ye, hem li tenit w rawestne...bdeng, rikest... bedbn dilikest... bermala wek bay bar tky, prg w b... li tenit ramed...

Di xzn 63-72an de, efsane li ser geta karwana darbest berve jrzemn disekine. Ew sawr dike ku darbest li ser kelekek ye, ku dinuqume parepar dibe.

Nnson bi hem nazdar bijna xwe li rex w ye, rondikn w tevle ronkn kesn ligel w diin dibin. Kelek nuqum warek nediyar... gam ligel w bn...

Pit ku Urnamu bi galska xwe digihne jrzemn, ew dest bi pkkirina diyariyan ji heft xwedawendn jrzemn re dike. Ew hejmarek mezin ji gam berxan serj dike sifreyeke mezin ji bo wan radixe. Ev tit di xzn 73-82an de t nimandin.

Galsk nixumand giht wir...ew bi werseke mukum girday b... Padah min diyar ji xwdawendn jrzemn re pk kirin... w pir berx gam serj kirin... xwedawend li ser maseyeke mezin rnitin...

Pit kutabna xwarin, Urnamu ji her xwedawendek jrzemn re diyariyeke guncav pk dike. Xzn 83-85an.

Padah bijare bi dil xwe xwedawendn jrzemn nas dikirin... diyar wek qurban ji wan re raber kirin...

Di xzn 86-90 efsane nav Nrgal ku wek Enll jrzemn j anas e, tne ziman. Urnam Gamn zind, berxn bik, hin mh ekan eyek av ji erm j re pk dike.

Gamn sax, berxn ba, mhn qelew...ewgan, kevanek mezin, rext, tr kreke ba krtkir (qtkir)... eyek rengn...Urnamuy ivan di qonaqa Nrgal jrzemn de diyar pk kirin...

Pitre Urnamu hin diyariyan ji bo padah jrzemn, Gilagam pk dike, herweha ji bo Erekigal dayka Nnazo guldandkek hin cil bergn qiraltiy pk kirin. Ji bo Dmoz j berxek ewganek zrkir pk kirin. Ji bo Namtar j, ku biryara arensan dide hin ciln bijare, gustlek kelekek kirin diyar.

Di xzn 144-193 an de, efsane ji n ve vedigere ser kul, xemgn lorandina xelk li ser wendabna Urnamu, ku kiryarn nemir ji gel xwe re pk kiribn. Efsane her wiha tborna xwedawendn, ku Urnamu bi sedan raje xizmet ji wan kiribn dinimne! L xzn 194-210an tkn hviy ku ji nka ve li nik Urnamu peyda dibin raber dike, imk ne hem xwedawend, wek ku Urnamu girman dikir di w diborin; awa ku Inanna ji znat neheqiya li Urnamu bb hay dibe... l mixabin kilaveyn kl ku destan li ser hatib nivsandin di wir ikest ne, ji lewre em nikarin arensa Urnamu pit ku Inanna pigiriya xwe j re dab xuyakirin bizanin!

Ji xwedan salixandina kitekitn efsaney mirov dikare fireh adaniya pindara mirov Somr bibne, her wiha sexbr ramna mirov bi mijarn girday jiyan, mirin, jrzemn baweriya w pir di v efsaney de pir balk in! Li dawiy iqas bi kurt be j, ez dixwazim v mijar di hin quncikn w de beramber tgnn mirov kurd bikim, bo wek girov derkeve pber xwendevanan ku mirov Somer sser nebye, l anada xwe bi geln derdor re parve kiriye nemaze gel Kurd... Bi baweriya min girovn reseniya gelan di nrt gerdn ku bi wan re ji nifek derbas nifek dibin in. Reng e hinek bjin ku ne ten kurd, l pir geln din j dikarin nrtn Someriyan werbigirin, l gelo ta roja ro kjan gel li rojhilata navn ji bil Kurdan girday mijarn ku somer ji hing ve li ser rawestbn, nemaze mijarn girday lome kalnan ji xwed, ku ta roja ro, heke werin ser ziman, dibin mijara ldan kutin di nav civakn wek Ereb, Tirk Faris de...

Di destana Siyamend Xec de, Siyamend kevan xwe radike ber xwe dide sin ltekiyn iyan ku li kon felek bigere heyf tola dildaran j vede, dildarn ku her her ji bbextiya v kon nagihnin bext mirazn xwe. Gelo heke mirov sexbr bibe, d nizabine kon felek i ye, ma ew ne tac memleketa xwed bi xwe ye? Helwesta Siyamend heke bi helwesta Gilgam were bemarberkirin, em dibn helwesta w li dij xwed hj tundtir e, ew bi heter die er xwed ku er kon felek bike heyfa d, bav camrn xelk hilne, berevaj Gilgam ku die xelasiya kesayetiya xwe bike, ango giyay herman ji bo xwe bne... Heke ev helwest li gor serdema njen j bi helwesta netewyn derdor Kurdan re were birawerdekirin, xuya ye helwesta van neteweyan ji xwed berve sertewandin die, li raber helwesta Kurdan hj tundtir dibe, ango mijarn girday rexneya xwed di nav Kurdan de her ku die firehtir piraltir dibin...

Di sitrana Zeyneb de j em rast v motf di gotinn El Tico te tn, axa ku negihtina bext dildar bi Zeyneb re dispre dexesiya xwed. Gelo ev ne heman mebesta nivskar destana mirina Urnamu ye, axa ku lome kalnan ji xwedawenadan dike, gelo xwedawend j ji mezinbn serkeftina Urnamu nedidexisn? Ev in opn derbasbna bandora anda Someriyan, gelo miletek din v gotin di sitrann xwe de bje i d bi ser dengbj were?

Ev in peln droka gel me, ku dijmin her her bizav dike wan vere an j bispre xwe. Ev in rastiyn ku ran, raq, Tirkiy Sriy bizav dikin ku ji ser gel Kurd bavjin anda xwe ya qelp bisepnin. Gelo ji bo i ziman kurd t qedexekirin, gundn Kurdan ji bo i tn ewitandin, zimann dagrkeran ima bi dar zor li nav kurdan tn belavkirin? ima komkirin parastina folklor zargotina gel Kurd ji bo dijmin cih saw tirs ye...

Bern

30.01.2009

 

 

 



[1] xwendina Latn ya kilaveya destan ji malpera http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk hatiye gitin.

 

 

 

 

 

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