Esker BOYK
 

JI DROKA ELFEBN KURD LI ERMENISTAN

 

Naha bye mode, ku her kar dewleta Sovt bi reng re fe t nandan, il zaha, ge re, qenc xirab gik krmek da, t ewitandin.

Demek bifikirin, eger qeyd sovt w welet da nehata demezirandn, gelo ew edebiyet medenyeta delal ya kurdn sovt w hebya? Eger dewlet mecal nekira gelo ew civaka nexwend, nvkoer, ya ji heja cihan ndamay, bi teherek ji qirr- birr komkujiyan xlazby, welat xerb da w bikaribiya bigihta w bilinday wan destannn hja?

 Na!

Usane i tit hatiye kirin, gerek b kirandin. Destannn kurdn Sovt, lah yn kurdn Ermenistan gik saya dewleta Sovt syasiya wye miletiy bn.

Dema liErmenistan qeyd sovt hate demezirandin hesav binely w, yn Kurd digihte nzkaya 8 hezar 500 meriv.*

Ermenistan warek agrar, padamay b, hal abor sosiyaly pirr dijwer da b, hal gel ermen j ne tu hal b. Rev-bez, err, komkujyn saln 1915-1920 , bi seda hezaran evdn mihacir e b c sitar, xelay, nexweiyan, ern navxwey hal xelk da nehtibn. Hal bineliyn wye Kurd  xirabtir b. i hatib ser ermeniya, hatib ser kurd w herem j. Pra j fodal, koer, nexwendt b. Bawark ji sed nodneh Kurdn w herem nexwend bn.

H salek j ji ser demezirandina qeyd sovt ra derbaz nebb, seroketiya Ermenistan, guhdarya xwe berbi hal kmnetewan kir. Kmnetew j li Ermenistan hml Kurd bn. Di nav kurdanda bi firet opratv dest bi xebatn civak, sosyal- kltr perwerdey bn.. 

Sala 1921 , 23 meha nsan Komsariyata Ermenistan ya ronkay biryar da, ku hem dibistann komar da perwerde ders bi ziman d bne derbaskirin.(1) Usane gundn Kurda da j gerek ders bi kurd  bihatana dayn. L ne elfeba kurd heb, ne j kadrn milety. Ji bo helkirina pirsgirk komsariyat gelek opratv kete li nav hewldanan. Ber ewlin gerek pirsa kirina elfeba Kurd areser bibiya. Pirsgirk rehet nb. Di demeke gelek kin da areserya w hate dtin. Meha trmeha (jl) w sal, li ser hm elfeba ermen d destnivsa w elfebay hazir b. Ew Lazo (Hakob Xazariyan), nivskar kurdzan bi esl xweva ermen, li ser hm girafka herf ermen hazir kirib (2)  . Meha cotmeh dsa w sal kitba dersa bi sernivsa EMS, li apxana  bajar cmadzn hate weandin.(3) Bi w elfeb dest bi hazirkirina dersdaran kirin. Dersdarn ewlin hml ermen bn, yn di nav civakn kurdada mezin bbn kurmanc zanibn. Sala 1921 gundn Ermenistan y kurdada 5 dibistann despk hatin vekiein, hesab agirta 267 b. Sala hnbnye 1925/1926 a hesab mekteban gihte 10 a, y agirta 520 . Sala 1927 a d 13 mektebn kurd dixebitn, ji wan ya gund Cercers ( niha Drik) heft sale b.

Sala 1922 a bi hewldana Lazo, Ahmed Mraz hinek rewenbrn din, li bajar Tilbs j (Gurcistan)  dibistana kurd ya ev hate vekirin. W dem ji qer bir, er dewn wan salaye eyan malbetn kurden mihacir ( hml zd) zarokn  sw tije w bajar bbn. Dibistan da zerok him dixebitn, him perwerde dibn ev j radizan. Xwendin, perwerde bi elfeba EMS dihate derbaskirin.

Di dema xwe da w elfeb w dibistan roleke ern jyana Kurdn w bajar da lstin. Ji nav agirt w dibistan merivn hja, yn wek kurdzan dineyan Qanat Kurdo, mrxas welat Sovt Semend Syabendov, helbestvan Qaax Mirad gelekn din derketin.

V elfeba Lazo, ji bo danna bingeha perwerd xwendina bi ziman kurd roleke hja lst. Ew ji bo hazirkirina kadran pwst, vekirina dibistanan, hsakirina xwendin seva proj b hm.

L karn piraktk nan dan, ku elfeba Lazo nikarib tra hem qann, reng dengn ziman kurd bike. Pa j kurd bi ten li Ermenistan n bn, civakn kurdan komar din  j dijtin, pwst bi elfebake usa heb ku him bi gor qann xwestekn giramra ziman kurd bya him  ji bo temamiya Kurdn welat Sovt gel Kurd pirmiyon kr bihata.

. *Sala 1926 a hesav Kurda Ermenistan da digihje 15.226, 1959 a 26.000, sala 1989 a.

 

Sala 1925 a meha ile (Yanvar) hemcivna Kurdn nepartivan ya nehya Hacxell (4) bi elametye berbir hukumata Ermenistan b, ku mecala sazkin ji bo demezrandina Elfeba kurd li ser hm girafka latn.

 

Hema w sal, pirsa guhestina Elfeba kurd, li asta serokatya Ermenistan ya here bilind da (Plnma Kommerkezya PK hemcvna Partya Komnstn Ermenisran ya 4 an ) hate enenekirin biryar hate girtin.

 

Wan sala pirsa Elfeba xwendina geln kmjimar temamya weletn Sovt da hatib dann. Nenihr pirsa demezirandina Elfeba kurd sa j di nav serokarya Komarn Gurcistan Adirbcan j dihate girtgohkirin l kar piraktk pewst li Ermenistan dihate kirin. Sala 1928 a 8 meha hezran bi biriyara Kommerkeziya PK Ermenistan komsyonek hate sazkirin. Di nav w da bn Askanaz Miravyan, (5) Ereb emo, emo Tmrov (6) hinekn dn.

W kom, bi rast j xebateke opratve hja kir.

Dewiya sala 1928 a Elfeba kurd ya bi girafka latn bi hazirkirna sahak Maroglov (7) Ereb emo d li ser texte b.

Meha adar, sala 1929 a kolgiya komsariyata RSS Ermenistan ya ronkay biriyara pilana kranna Elfeba kurdye n da. W biryar da usa ji areserkirna gelek pirsn ferze din hatibn pda kiandin, weke wextek kin da bi w elfeb weena pirtkn dersa, krsn hazirkirina dersdaran, rk-pkirna karn dibistanan, di aqara komarn Pikavkaz gazkirna Konfranseke zanest. Hate sipartin rojhilatzan mezin . A. Orbl ku ew giramra ziman Kurd hazirke biwene (8)

Ji bo frbna w elfab hema w sal kitba dersa ya .Maroglov Ereb emo Xwe- xwe hnbna xandina nivsara kurmanc hate apkirin.

Sala 1930 d temamya dibistann kurd yn Ermenistan xwendin weena pirtkan bi elfeba n b. W sal li Yrvan dest bi weena rojnema  RYA TEZE b.

Ji bo dibistann kurd hazirkirna dersdaran meha tebax (avgst) sala 1930, hukumata Ermenistan biryar da despka sala 1931 li Yrvan xwendinxana Pdagogy ya Pikavkaz veke. Xendexan, ne ku ten ji bo dibistann kurd y Ermenistan, l ji bo komarn Pikavkaz Trkmnistan j gerek dersdar hazirkira. Xwendevan j ji wan dera dihatin. Sala xwendin ya ewlin xwendinxan da 60, ya duda 105, l ya sisya hesev xwendevana gihte 110 a. Ji wen pnc jin bn. (9)

Sala xwendinye 1929-1930 li RSS Adirbcan dibistan ziman kurd vebn, hinek peyra RSS Turkmnistan j ders ziman kurd hatin dayin.

Sala 1932 a li Ermenistan hesav dibistann Kurd gihte 35 a, di wan da 2051 agirt perwerde dibn. Wan dibistana da xwendin bitevay  bi ziman kurd b.

Dewleta Ermenistan mecaln berfire saz kir ji bo weena pirtkn dersa, y edeb, txnk, bolog, syas, dirok. Pirtk dersa gik bi ziman kurd bn. Heta sala 1933 a 59 nav kitb bi traja 91 hezar heb hatin weendin.

Jyana kurdn Sovt da byareke drok  b konfransa Kurdzan ya hemsovtiy. Konfrans) sala 1934 a, 8-14 trmeh (yl) li Yrvan hate derbasbn. Ji Adirbcan, Gurcistan ,Ermenistan, Trkmnistan, Lnngirad, Moskivay 90 nnern kurdzany tev xebat konfrans dibn.

Konfrans bin serokatya  serok dwana komara Ermenistan da hat derbaskirin, pirsn danna bingeha ziman kurd y edeb, rastnvsar, elfeba, gramra kurd, pirsn trmnologya kurd hatin lnhrandin. Konfrans zarav kurmanc y kurdn Ermenistan nas kir wek ziman kurdn Sovtye bingehn. Biryar da siparte nsttta kltray drok ya Ermenistan, ku berhemn folkora kurd ku ji sala 1931 ji nava xelkn Ermenistan hatibn nivsandin b weandin.(10).

Guhdar dihate dann li ser pirsa jinan, bilindkirina dereca wane xwendin, sosiyal -kltry. Bi biryara hukumata Ermenistan sala 1936 a  komek ken Kurd krs xilaz kirin ku bax zaroka, kitbxane kilbn gundn Kurda da bixebitin. Sala 1937  ji bo hazirkirina dersdarn kurde jin Yrvan da krsn dusale hatin vekirin. Wanda 30 ken kurd duxwendin. (11)

Usa, bi xemxuriya serokatya komara Ermenistanye xrxwez salbisal hesav dibistana, agirta, weena pirtka zde dib, rewembrya kurd pda dihat. Di rya edebyet zanyary da nivskar zanyarn Kurd gavn  ewlin diavtin.

Sala 1932 a li rex yektya nivskarn Ermenistan bea Nivskarn Kurd veb. W sal berevoka efrandinn nivskarn kurd ya ewlin hate weendin. Sala 1934  bi nav Nivskarn Kurd berevoka duda, salek peyra ya sisya bi nav Kitba sisya hate weendin. (12).

Bi heq  wan kitbada, pay berhemay pir dr pvann efrandin bedewety ne, l i j hebe ew cy vala bne rola wan wek byara drok heye, Bi wan ji bo xebatn paroj hm, bingeh dihate dann, civakeke kadran li hev dicivyan.

Bi efrandinn xweye ewlin Ereb emo, Ahmed Mraz, Hecy Cind, Emn Evdal, Wezr Nadir, Casim Cell, Cerdoy Gnco,  Etar ero yn din pda hatin.

Ji edebyeta cihan geln welat sovt gelek werger hatin kirin

 

Bi elfeba Latn PSS Adirbcan PSS Trkmnistan j bi ziman kurd dest bi weena kitbn dersa edebyeta bedew b. Sala 1930 heta sala 1938 a Adirbcan bi ziman kurd 26 nav kitbn dersa edebyeta mayn, l Trkmnstan 8 nav kitb hatin weandin.(13)

Bi heq gerek b kirandin ku ji sala demezirandina qeyd Sovt girt, heta sala 1937 a welat Sovt da guhdarke pirr mezin datann li ser pdayna kltr perwerda kmnetewan. Ermenistan da ji bo w para Kurdan tu mecal nehatye hviandin.

Gerek ney jibrkirin kirandin xemxur, amint, bi xrxwez berbirbna rewenbr serokatya Ermenistan y w dem berbi w para gel me.

ed w dem derheqa xrxwezya skrtar ewlin y Kommerkezya PK Ermenistan Axas Xancyan da jibr tnn. Ew ermeny Wan bye, kurd rind zanibye, dostanya malbeta wan kurdan hebye. Gil dikin ku Axas Xancyan bi exs hel kurda dipirs. Du cara ye xwendinxana Kurd ya Ptagogy, pirsgirkn wan hisyaye alkarya wan kirye.

Axas. Xancyan j b qurbana dijweryn sal dIktatorya stalnzm.

Nava wan sala da li ser hm Elfeba Kurdye Latn ji 180 nav zdetir kitb biror hatine weandin. Xwendinxana ptagogy di nav wan sala da, 70 dersdaren bi xwendina ptagogyye navn ji bo dibistann gundn Kurdan hazir kir. (14) Gelek cwann Kurdan li bajarn welat sovet yn baqe- baqe da xwendina bilind dest ann Tevgereke hja gurr dest p bb, w pirr kar bihata kirin eger dijweryen rjma stalnzmye dktatory r li w kar negirta.

 

Sala 1938 pirsa guhestina  Elfeba kurdye latn bi ya rs (kirl) pjda hate kiandin. Sala 1941 Komtya Trmnologyay ya RSS Ermenistan kar Elfeba n siparte Hecy Cind.

Hukumata Ermenistan bi biryara xweye 909 ya 3 hezran, elfeba n ya ser bingeha girafka kirl bi zdekirina hinek tpn latn hinek tpn ermen er dike.

Dest bi herba navbera Almanya htlry welet Sovt dibe. Karkirna Elfeb t sekinandin.

Sala 1944 a dsa pirsa Elfeba kurd t meydan. Komsya n zdekirina tpn ermen pwst nabne, Elfeba li ser tpn rs , ku Hecy Cind hazir kirib end tpn latn j zde dikin ji bo krann er dikin. (15) 

Sala 1946 a kitba ELFBA n, ya Hecy Cind,  bi tpn kirl ji bo dibistann gund kurdan hate weandin. Ew ELFBA heta hilwena welat Sovet, bi deha cara hate weandn dirjaya w wext, zarokn Kurdan p hn ziman dayk bn. 

 

Ji pey mirina Staln ra, syasya Sovt da dsa Kurd hatin rojav. Dsa li komara Ermenistan dezgehn anda kurdty vebn bi elfeba kirl, bi hzeke xurt  kar xwe berdewan kirin. (Rojnema RYA TEZE, Radyoya Yrvan-para axaftinn Kurd, bea nivskaran li rex Yektya nivskarn Ermenistan, para Kurdzany dezgehn din).Temamya gunden kurdan da d dibistann heftsale navne rk-pk hebn. V car d dibistann gundn kurdan da d perwerde bi gik bi ziman ermen, rs, yan adirbcan dimeya. Heft da sehetek yan dudu dabne ziman kurd. d kadirn miletiy pda hatibn, bingeha kurdewariy ya kltr, sosyal, edeb rojbiroj xurt dib. Tev Ereb emo (n ji sirgn vegerya b), Hecy Cind, Emn Evdal, Casim Cell bar psvabirina and kltra gel xwe Mroy Esed, Xell Mradov, ekroy Xudo, Mkayl Ret, Ely Ebdilrehman, Qaax Mirad, tev niva gnc dan ser mil xwe bi serfiraz pda birin.

Eger di nav kurdan da heta sala 1940 merivn bi xwendina bilind ser tilyan dihatin hesabkirin, l dewya saln pncy virda bi seda drokzan, zimanzan, nivskar, rojnemevam, dersdar, bijk, mehenhengz xwey meslkn crbicr pda hatin. Wan bi dereca xweye zanyary ji kadrn geln cnar danedixistin. Geleka dereca doktory, profsory standin. Bi seda pirtkn edeb, zanest yn giranbha bi kurd hatine weendin. 

Elfeba kirl heta hilwena welat Sovt berdewan kir. Bi hilwena Sovt ra bawark dezgehn kurdewar yn li Ermenistan  bi temam hilweiyan, bne kelefe.

Niha Komarn Sovta br da, dsa hinek kar barn kurdewar tn meann l tev j bi elfeba latn ya Celadt Bedirxan .

 

Van bst sal dewy, li Ermenistan, bi alkar hewldana miletiyn ermen, dtret keta di nav Kurdn zd. Parek zdiyan bi pitgirtiya deshilatdariya komar gotin ku giva ew kurd nnin, zd miletek cudaye. Serokatya Komar bi xurt pita wan girt wanra mecaln kltr-perwerdey vekirin. 

Hinek dibistana da zerokn zdiyan ra dersn ziman zdk t dayn. Kitbn dersa hatine weendin. L elfeba kirl t krann.

Bi texmna min, merem milety komar, bi kranna w elfeb ewe, ku w para zdiyan ji bingeh koka wan, and kltra wan ya kurdty zdty (niha  bi elfeba latn erebye) drxn karibin di nav xweda bihelnin.

 

                                                   

 Cavkan

 

1.X.M. Catoev, Kurde Ermenistana Sovt, bi ziman rs, Yrvan 1965; ru 114.

2. Lazo (1869-1926): Kurdzan, nivskar, dersdar. Xudan elfeba kurd li ser hm irfta ermen kitba dersaye EMS (1921). Sala 1922 a bi nsatva w bajar Tilbs da dibistana kurdye ewlin hate vekirina bi xwe j b berpirsyar w. Tev rewenbrn Kurd Ahmed Mraz, Kemal Bedirxan, Emn Evdal Esed Cango karek kltry mezin kir di nav civaka kurd ya w bajar da. Knoflma ZER (1926), li ser hm kurteroka w hatye kiandin. 

Lazo, usa j, ji emr kurda bi ziman ermen efrandinn edeb, drok nivsne, zargotina kurd berev kirye, kar werger va mijl bye.

3.N.X. Maxmdov, Gel Kurd, bi ziman ermen, Yrvan  1959, r. 224; Hecy Cind, Ork, edebyeta kurdn Ermenistana Sovete, bi ziman ermen, Yrvan 1970, r30-31

4. Hacxell (niha Saxkahovt) nav gundek ermenya ye li berpala yay Elegez. W dem merkeza nehy bye. Li nav w nehy da 12 gundn kurdn zd yn nava Elegez bn. N. X. Maxmdov, Gel Kurd, bi ziman ermen, Yrvan 1957, r 224.

5.A.Miravyan, exsek ermenyay bi nav deng, w dem komsar ronkay y RSS Ermenistan b.

6. emo Tmrov, serlekerek kurd y leker sovt. .

7.sahak Maroglov* sala 1868 a ji dayka xwera bye. Bi esl xwe ariye. Bav w despka sedsala 19 an ji ran ko dike t Ermenistan wlayta Yrvan, li gund Divn binec dibe. . W dem ew herem bin hukum dewleta Rsyay da b. sahak ji pey xilaskirina dibistan smnaray ra  sala 1888 dest bi kar dersdary dike. Sal dirj li dibistann gundn axtaxt (Qeza Naxcvan),  Divn  (Qeza Qemerly) dixebite. Zaroty da ew hn ziman kurd  dibe. Hersal mala wan derdiketin zozan Elegeze bi meha ew nav zarokn kurda da dima.

Sala 1905 a serokatiya dezgehn xwendin, ya herema Yrvan, . Maroglov dinine gund zdiya Zor (qeza Surnely) wek dersdar ziman rs.. Ew dibistan dewleta rs ji bo zarok kurdan vekirib. Li vir, li Zor fikira kirina Elfeba kurd cem w pda t.

Pit li komarn Pikavkas dest bi dewrana n dibe, Maroglov bi xurt xwe amedey kar kirina Elfeba kurd dike. Dema ew kar elfebay li ser hevda tne, gotareke zanist bi nav Elfeba kurd kovara and nivsandina rojhilat da bi ziman rs diwene. Gotar da bi kray derheqa wan  xissyn ziman giramra kur da t gotin, ku ew ji bo kirina Elfeb xwera weke bingeh hildab.

Elfeba kurd ya li ser bingeha girafka latn ya sahak Maroglov Ereb emo sala 1929 an kete nava jyan.

sahak Maroglov sala 1933 ser dilovanya xwe. Rojnema RYA TEZE  kar xebaten wye kurdewary bilind qmet kir. Heval Maroglov bi elfbra girday saln pain dersdar b, dersdar ziman kurmanc, rs. Krsa dersdarn kurmanc ji ewlinda w ziman kurmanc hn dikir. Di txnkmda (xwendinxana kurdye ptagogy) dsa dersdar ziman kurmanc ziman rs b. Di nava saln painda j w bi ziman kurmanc pnc kitb nivsne.

Gelek balke gotara Cerdoy Gnco. (RYA TEZE, sala 1933; 15 lon; N 42 (129).

 

*Cell Cell, Rpeln balk ji droka gel kurd, bi ziman kurd, Wn 2002 r 139-143.

(Sret Maroglov y lfeba kurdye latn min ji w pirtka prof. Cell Cell hildaye,

sret EMS ji orgnal.

8.X.M. Catoev, Kurde Ermenistana Sovt, bi ziman rs, Yrvan 1965; ru 118.

9. N.X. Maxmdov, Gel Kurd, bi ziman ermen, Yrvan  1959, r. 242.

10. Dsa li wur. r 234.

11. RYA TEZE, 26 mart, sala 1969 a.

12. Hecy Cind, Ork, edebyeta kurdn Ermenistana Sovete, bi ziman ermen, Yrvan 1970, r 35-36.

13. RYA TEZE, 26 mart, sala 1969 a.

14. Dsa li wur.

15. . N.X. Maxmdov, Gel Kurd, bi ziman ermen, Yrvan  1959, r. 240.

 

26.03.2009                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 

 

 

Ry ewlin y kitba Lazo (Hakob Xazaryan)

                           SEMS

 

 

 

   

 

Hejmara rojnema RYA TEZE ya ewlin, sala 1930

 

 

Elfeba kurd bi grafka Latn, ku . Maroglov

Ereb emo amade kirine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

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