Hunera helbest - 1

 

 Heyder Omer                                

 

                                                       

 

 

 

 

 

Pgotin

 

Tev ku rexne, wek tgeheke sanist, an j wek zanistek di nava zanistn mirovane de, li ba hem miletan gavn fireh ber bi p de qevaztine l li ba me gelek jar e, ta radeya, ku mirov di bje me rexne nas nekiriye, loma j pir guftugown me stuy ev tgeh badidin, ji wateya w ya zanist bi derdixnin. Lewre j gava rexnevanek berhemeke wjevanek me dide ber ronahiya rexn, eger bonn w li kfa xwediy berhem nebanin, dinya bi ser w de t hilweandin, hem sinn mirovane dibine qurbana rika ewt qerj, ji ber ku rexne li ba me bi wateya pesn, an birnkirin t fmkirin.

Bi baweriya me ev helwesta ewt pirn rewenbr, helbestvan nivsevann me, wek civaka me, ji anda rexn b par dide xuyakirin, pre j bandra xwe ya neyn dikne ser tevay wejeya me, w jar qels dihle.

L mebest wateya peyva rexne, bi wateya ku ew li ba hem miletan t xebitandin, ji wateya peyva criticism( kirtszm ), a zimann ewrup, ku ji lkera krinein ( kirneyn ) a Girkan hatiye wergirtin. (Wek nimne, bi ziman ngilz (critic kirkk), bi y elman (kritik), bi y firansiz (critique - kirtk)   bi y rs ( krtka ). 

Ev lker di bingeha xwe de wateya biryar ( hukum ) an j pnij dide, pre j, gava di meydana wje de t xebitandin, dikare bihay (nerx) berhemeke wjey diyar bike.

Rexnevann Eُreban, li gor wateya lkera Girkan, peyva Enneqd ( El-neqd ) bi kar tnin. Ev peyva eُreb, di ziman wan de, wek ku di ziman me de j, wateya dirav ( pere ) dide. L ima rexnevann eُreb w bi wateya lkera Girkan dixebitnin?.

Ewana weha diin, ku ev peyv dikare diravn rast ji yn sexte cuda bike, ango dikare, di meydana diravan de, biryar ( hukum ) bide, ku ev pere rast e, eva din j sexte ye. Ev wate peyva eُreb ji wateya lkera Girkan ve nzk dike, pre j diyar dibe, ku ev peyva eُreb di ziman wan de du wate hene; yek j dirav e, ya din, ku di meydana wje de t xebitandin, biryardayn e, nerxandin e.

Eger mirov li pey wateya peyva biryar here, w vekolne, em bawer im d li dawiy bigihne wateya peyva  hukum biha an nerxandin, ji ber ku ji hlek de biryar bi xwe hukmek e, ji hla din de ti biryara b biha ( b nerx ) nne, i ew nerxa bilind be, i j nizim erzan be, pre j d bigihne wateya peyva pnij, ji ber ku her biryarek encama pnijiy ye.

Dmek gava em peyva rexne di meydana wje de, bi wateya lkera Girkan, dixebitnin,hng mebesta me biryardan e, nerxandin e.V lom em weha diin, ku peyva kurd ( nerx )an j ( nirx ) d di v pergal de ji peyva ( rexn ) rastir be, imk, ji hlek de, wek diyar e, peyva (nerx ) dikare wateya lkera Girkan ya peyva zimann ewrup ( criticism ) di xwe de bicivne, ji hla din de, peyva ( rexn ) a kurd, eger (e) bi pa w nekeve, bilvkirina her du tpn (x, n) li pey hevdu gelek giran dibe, eger tpa (n) bte avtin, (rex) dimne,   wateya ( klek kenar ) dide, pre j ji wateya lkera Girkan ve bi dr dikeve.Bi baweriya me, tpn ev peyv bi p pa hevdu ketine, p re j nerx bye rexn.

L tev v baweriya me, em d di v xebata xwe de peyva ( rexn ) bi kar bnin, v bona xwe ya jorn ji danustandin gengeeyn wjey re bihlin. bidine p zimanzann me, da her du peyvan vekolin, belk karibin vkra bigihnin boneke yekta.

Ev lkolna me pirojeya karek rexney ye, li klek hinek lkolnn me mna ( Helbest civak, durvkirina demdar helbesta pexane ) ku ber di kovar malperan de hatine weandin,berxwedide ku durv helbest hmann huneriya w bipelne. Lewre j d giraniy bide war tor, l gava pwst bi war piratk, ji bo ravakirina hin bonan hebe, d berxwebide, ku hinek nimneyan ji helbesta kurd bide ber ronahiya bonn rbazn rexn.

L wek awa Kurd dibjin got b hest nabe, em j nikarin v xebata xwe ji lekeyan bin, bjin ew karek b kmas ye, nemaze j em dibnin, ku deriy v babet, li ba me hna kiltkir ye. Hviya me ew e, ku hevalkarn rzdar berxwe bidin, da, bi xebatn xwe,wan lekeyan ji v kar me bidin alk, na wan kmasiyan teng bikin, belk cefayn me hemiyan vkra v valahiya, ku di tevgera me ya wjey de li ber ava ye, dagirin.

 

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                                     Helbest di navbera lham cefa de

 

 

B ku em droka helbest, wek celebek wje, dubare bikin, em dikarin xwe bidin klek gelek droknivs rexnevann wje helbest, weha biin, ku helbest, li nik miletn, ku wjeya wan ji roja zaroktiya wan de hatiye naskirin, di piya pexan de bye; ango helbest ji beriya pexan hatiya naskirin, Ji ber ku ew li ber dergehn zaroktiya miletan ji dayik bye, ji w dem de j away nivisandina helbest bye mijara gelek danstandinan, gelek rexnevanan cefayn mezin, di v babet de, diyar pirtkxaneyn mirovaniy kirine, hna j dikin.Pre j diyar dibe, ku ewana her tim tit, ku helbest pexan ji hevdu cuda dike, dipelnin.

Mixabin, pirn guftugown, ku di v mijar de, li ser zibann pirn helbestvann me digerin, didine xuyakirin, ku haya wan ji evan cefayan tune ye, an km e, pre j xuya dibe, ku ewana weha diin, ku k, bi tenha, dikare helbest pexan ji hevdu cuda bike, deriy helbest li p her kesek li ser pit veke, bi ser de j hinek dibjin: "Ma form ( durv ) dikare i li helbest zde bike? " . Gelo ev yeka rast e?.

Bi rast eger ev bon li cihine din de bte gotin, belk bi hsan derbas bibe, b ku bala mirov bikne, l gava di meydana helbest de t gotin, gelek pirsn, ku li derdora zanna xwediy w digerin, dilivne.

Wek me ber gotiye, helbest celebek wjey kevn e, her weha ji w kevinbn de j bye mijara rexnevanan.

Ber p helbest li gel Ilham hate bestandin, hate gotin, ku helbestvan li gel xweday huner ( muses ), ku li gor bona efsaneyn Girkan, smbola w lham b, tkildar e.

Efletn Girk pirsek berda hol: Gelo lham jdera helbest ye, an cefa?.Ilham j li ba w li gel xweda girday ye. L li benda bersivn kesn din nema, bel ew bersiva pirsa xwe da, weha : Helbesta, ku jdera w ne lham be, b nerx dimne, lham dikare helbestvanan bixe pergaleke mna pergala softiy pximberiy, lewre j cefa xebat tra afirandina helbest nakin, ji ber ku helbesta helbestvan, ku hestn w sar in, nikare hilkie asta ya hestn w germ in.

Rexneya Romay ya kevin di bin bandra v bona Efletn de milxwar b, gelek rexnevann wan, mna ron, Horas n din xwe dane klek bona Efletn, nerna w ctin dubare kirin.

Her weha gelek nivsevan helbestvann erxa raperna Ewrupay j weha n, ku helbestvan xwediy helwesta proz derna xweday zrekiya, ku ronahiya xweda w dafirne ye. L bi v yek ten qayl nebn.   

Rexnevann Eُreban yn kevin j li gor v bon, gotin, ku her helbestvanek eytanek heye, hza helbestiy di w helbestvan de dafirne (1), ango ewana j helbestvan xistin bin bandra hzeke veart, by w hz helbestvan nikare helbest bafirne.

Dmek Efletn Girk ber p weha , ku helbesta nerxbiha berhema lham ye, ji ber ku, wek ew dibne, cefa bi tenha nikare helbest bafirne (2). L tev v bona w, ku giraniy nade cefayan, bel ten bi lez rola wan nan dike, mirov nikare avn xwe li hember w rol damirne; ango helbest, li gor bona Eflatn, berhhema lham ye, l hinek cefa j div, da naveroka lham wergerne.

L di pey Eflatn re, agirt w Erstotals hat, nerneke ekera diyar kir, tev ku ew j, li gor mamost xwe, naveroka civak perwerdey ya helbest teqez kir, l ew rola cefa ji ya lham, ne ten, kmtir nekir, l bi ser de j lham ewqas bala w nekiand, ji ber ku rdawn helbest bala w kiandin,pre j ew riyeke din, di penava irovekirina helbest de qelat. Lewre j ew zagon usln huner, bandra wan, ku helbest li gor wan t afirandin, pelandin, pre Eflatn Erstotals, di meydana rexna helbest de, bne du nnern du rgayan, ku heya v exa n tne gengeekirin, bersiva w pirs dipelnin: Gelo afirandina helbest giraniy dide lham an dide kar cefay helbestvan?!.

Ev cefay, ku Efletn rola w bi lez nan dike, Erstotals w gelek biha dinerxne, bala nivsevan rexnevann erxa raperna Ewrupay kiand, ewana j ew zor bilind nerxandin, weha n, ku afirandina helbest gelek cefa kar j re divn (3).

Wek ku me li jor gotiye, gelek ramanbr flozofn Romay, nivsevan helbestvann erxa raperna Ewrupay bbne dln be yekem ( lham ) y  bonn Eflatn, ew ctin,l nivsevann erxa raperna Ewrupay rola kar cefay helbestvan ji bra nekirin, ta ku ewana ghane erxa 17, ku rbaza kilask destlatdar bye (4), hng felsefa Erstotals li ba kilaskan deslatdar b, rexnevann w dem bne meldarn nerna w, cefa kar helbestvan, di endizyariya helbest de bala wan zor kiand, ewana ewey derbirina helbest pelandin.

Di pey wan re romantk hatin, careke din bona Eflatn ( helbest berhema lham ye ) vejandin, helbest ji bin sbera hi ber bi sbera hestan bi tenha de kiandin, weha n, ku lham pahestan (bageh) kaniya helbest ye, ji ber ku ewana mldarn xweytiya mirov bn,  ew gelek biha dinerxandin, hest didane piya hi. L tev v yek j gelek helbesvann wan, ku rexnevan bn, nerx lham kmtir dikirin, wek awa helbestvan rexnevan emerk dgar Alan Po dibje, ku pozbilindiya helbestvanan r nedida wan, ku lixwenin, ka iqas cefa di ber afirandina helbest de diknin, ewana w cefay nan nakin, da kesn din bidin qaylkirin, ku ewana lhamdar in, helbesta wan j berhema w lham ye.

Her weha her du helbestvann firans Bodlr y ngilz Spndar y hemdem, xwe dane klek . A. Po, bne hevaln bonn w.

Bodlr weha die, ku div helbestvan destlatdar helbest be, r nede w ku destlatdar w be, da zann, hiyar, aram rastiya huner di helbesta xwe de bicivne, bikaribe li ser wateyan derbirina wan destlatdar be.

Her weha Spndar j weha die, ku cefa di helbest de her tit e, belk ev cefa rojek, end hefteyan, an end mehan bidome, ta ku bte xuyakirin, ku helbest di tevaya v dem de, ji xwe ber hatiye nivisandin.

Ji vebriqandina ramana yekemn bi nda i rola lham namne. Di d vebriqandina ramana yekemn re rola  karnn helbestvan dest p dike, ku bikaribe wan wateyan bi cefa derbirina xwe bike helbest.(5).

Bi ser de j rexnevan eُreb Teysr x El-Erd weha die, ku raman bi away tewaw venabiriqe, bel ew beriya, ku bi derkeve meydan,her tim dubare dibe, da ew xebata helbestvan ya zimanewan kesaiy li hevdu bibanin (6).

Kiro j para xwe kiriye v babet, lham irovekiriye, l ji arewa ewan rexnevann jor bi dr de neye. Ew j rola cefay helbestvan di dzankirina berhema lham de zor biha nerxandiye, weha ye, ku gelek cefa divye, da helbestvan bikaribe bermay lham, ku bi xwe nehn ye, bi derxne, bike helbest, pre j ghaye w baweriy, ku eger lham kaniya zrekiy ye, zrek, di  meydana helbest de, wateya karna huner distne.

L pit ku zanyarn dern tiliya xwe didine ser devera pahestan (bageh), nemaze j pit derna pirtka Sgmond Firoyd ( Chana xewnan ) sala 1900, pirsgirka lham pirtir ber bi war zanist de t kiandin, ji ber ku chana pahestan, li nik wan, na lham distne, nernn rexnevanan j tne guhertin, giraniy didine cefa xebata helbestvanan.

Bi v away, say t xuyakirin, ku ewan rexnevann, ku di meydana helbest de, giran dane lham, ji Efletn de bigir, ta digihn Kiro, nikarbn rola cefay helbestvan di endizyariya helbest de tune bikirana.

Eger em bipirsin, gelo mebesta wan ji cefa ye, em bawer in, ku mirov dikare, b dudil, bibje, ku cefa wateya xebat kar helbestvan di avakirin endizyariya helbest de, nan dike; ango me ber bi pelandina durv ( form ) w de; ber bi alavn huner, ku helbestvan ji bo avakirina w durv dixebitne de, dikne; ev cefa j ne ten hilbijartina ka ye, belk mirov bikaribe bje, ku k hsantirn be w be, ji ber ku k, bi xwe, bermayn kesine dine, ji beriya helbestvan hatine afirandin, ew dikare, b cefa, rahje wan.

Cefa, wek me ber gotib wateya kar xebata helbestvan distne, away ristin avakirina helbest distne; ango hestn ku helbestvan bi wan hestedar e, ji xwe ber nabine helbest, bel div ew hestan bi awak bne wergerandin organzekirn, ev awa wey derbirina helbest ye, away avakirina durv helbest ye.

Rexnevan Eُreb Teysr x El-erd weha die, ku s istnn derbirina huner hene, ew j ev in: Pergala wijdan ya hunermend, karna w ya huner, wey w y taybet, ku dikare p li ser xebata xwe ya huner destlatdar be, pde die, dibje, karna huner di xebitandina alavn huner ciwan de t xuyakirin, ku hunermend awan dikare pergala xwe ya wijdan bi alkariya wan alavan bide diyarkirin, w pergala hestewer ( ageh ) derbas hundir derbirina huner bike (7).

Wek awa koma keviran ji xwe ber nabine avahiyeke ciwan, bel gelek metiryaln din divn, da avahiyeke ciwan tewaw ji wan hemiyan, bi zann xebata avaker jrek qulafet xwe y daw bistne, weha j koma gotin peyvan nikarin ji xwe ber bibine karek huner ye xweser. Lewre j rexnevanan her tim alavln derbirina huner avakirina helbest pelandine.

 

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Jder avkan:

(1) Biner: Dr. Mihemed Xuneym Hilal:Rexneya wjey ye n. Bi ziman eُreb, Brt 1987, r 345,346.

(2) Jdera ber, r 347.

(3) Jdera ber, r 348.

(4) Biner: Dr. M. X. Hilal: Romantk. Bi ziman eُreb. Brt 1973, r 11- 30.

(5) Dr. M. X. Hilal: Rexneya wjey ye nu. Bi ziman eُreb, r 349.

(6) T. x El-Erd: Pelandina bingeha huneran. Bi ziman eُreb. Weann hevgirtina nivsevann Eُreb, nimra ap nediyar e, am 1991, r 223.

(7) Jdera ber, r 203.

 

 

 

 

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