Dr. Ehmed Xell   

Wergr: Heyder Omer

Kesayetiya Kurd

Lkolnn civaknasn

 

Xelek 5

Syemn nif piyn Kurd  

 

 

                               1. Men-nay ( Mannea )

 

Pkhatin damar/reh:

Men-nay axek din e ji piyn Kurd, ku di destpka yekemn hezar saln b.z de li bar gola Urmiy diyar bye. Bajarn Kurd, yn nka li bakur-rohilat ran ne, Mehabad, Sekiz ino j di nav de, parek ji welat wan bn, yekemn car nav v ax di deqn mx aor de bi nav ( Men-nay ) hate naskirin, welat wan j bi ( Mana, Man-na, Mn-na, Men-na ) hate navandin. Hinek j weha diin, ku ( Man-na ) yekek ji miletn, ku bi (lamt Zagro ) hatine naskirin, bn; ewana merivn Lolowan bn, tev li Horiyan bn, ji destpka sedsala nehemn heya bi sedsala heydemn b.z de navn Ar li ba wan diyar bn. Paytexta wan j bajar ( zrta ) b, ku bi 50 Km dr bajar Sekiz li hla rohilat dikeve(1).

Serdema zrn ya v gel ji sala ( 714 b.z ) de dest p dike, w hng ewana hem xaka (erd) li klek em Aras, li bakur gola Urmiy, xistin nav welat xwe, destlata wan bi hla roava de, heya em Zaba mezin ( jorn ) li bakur Hewlr, c; ev yeka j dide xuyakirin, ku dewleta Men-nay piraniya devern Kurd, ku nka li bakur-roavay ran ne, beek ji devern Kurd, ku li bar Kurdistan ne, tev li xwe kir.

Dr. Cemal Red devern dewleta Man-nay bi away fireh ann zimn, bi kurtah weha : Daw em dikarin bibjin, ku welat Man-nay ji bar welat Parso ( Faris ) de dest p dikir, heya bi welat Orartiyan li bakur, b cnar welt Zamwa Aor ji hla w ya roava de, l ji hla rohilat de em nikarin sorn welat Man-nay nan bikin. Bi gotineke din, em dikarin bibjin, ku xaka navbera gola Urmiy li bakur, heya bi gola Zerbar; klek Merwan li bar, ketib nav welat Man-nay, zincra iyayn Zagros j bbn klekn w yn roava(2). Dr. Ebdil-Hemd Zayd j teqez dike, ku Kurdistana ran ya nka, bi hla bar gola Urmiy de ahnina Man-nay b(3).

 

Xebata dij dewleta Aor: 

Wek ku penda kurd dibje, ba her dem li bndera dewleta Man-nay nedihat. Ewana ji hla bakur-roava de li hember dewleta Orarto ( Xeld ), ji hla roava de j li hember dewleta Aor, r bi r bn. Bi destpka heydemn sedsala b. z re ahn hzdar yn dewleta Orarto diyar bn, dan ser devern, ku di bin destlata dewleta Man-nay de bn,  ah Orarto Mnewa ( Mnewas ) dest da ser devern jor herdu emn Dcle Zaba mezin ( Jorn ) hin devern din yn Man-nayan, inowa nka j di nave de, li bar gola Urmiy. Ne ten weha, bel xaka dewleta Man-nay tev b meydana nakokiyan di navbera her du dewletn Orarto Aor de, ku her yek ji wan dixwast xaka dewleta Man-nay bixe bin destlata xwe de(4).

Tit balk ew e, ku em giringiya riya herr ya bazirganiya chan, wek sedemn wan nakokiyan, j bra nekin. Ew r ji Egbatana ( Hengmetana / Hemezan ) li bar dihat, ber bi bakur de, dewleta Man-nay derbas dikir, di bajar Rexe, ku li klek Tehran ye, re ber bi rohilat orta Asiyay de di. Digel ku ahn Orarto Aor avn xwe berdabn berhemn dewleta Man-nay, ewana dixwastin w riy j bixin bin destlata xwe de. Di qunaxek ji qunaxn wan nakokiyan de, ah Aor; Sergon duwem ( 722-705 b. z ) li (Aza kur ranzo ) wek, ku ah Man-nay ye, mukir hat, Aza j li gel dewleta Aor peymana hevbendiy gir da(5).

L bel gel Man-nay, bi sedema ku ah wan Aza li p dewleta Aor jar qels b, ser li hember w hilda, ew girt kut. Sergon duwem j hema li ber w serhildan rab, rber w gdato xiste zndan, p re j Ellosoto; kur Aza y din, hat ser text Man-nay. Ew j ji bo rizgariya ji destn Aoriyan berxwe da, v lom peyman li gel Rosa; ah Orarto gir da, 22 keleh xistin destn w, serdarn devern bakur em Zaba bik ( jrn ) bi ser Aoriyan de hevotin. L Sergon duwem dest best nema, bel w bajar zoroto; paytexta Man-nay dagr kir, Ellosoto xwe avte destn w, w j ew wek ah li ser text Man-nay ht(6).

Di serdema ah Aoriyan Aor Banpal ( Ashurbanpal ) de ( 688-627 b. z) gel El-Siks ji bakur derya Re de hatin, dan ser xaka Man-nay, li hln bar gola Urmiy, li klek bajar Sekiz cwar bn, p re j El-Siks di newqa dewleta man-nay de bn diriyek dijwar; hevbend li gel Aoriyan girdan, cefayn Man-nayyan, ji bo rizgarbna ji bin nr Aoriyan, tk birin.

Di dema heftemn sedsala b. z de Med li roavay Asiyay bi hz dibn, destdanna ser dewleta Man-nay, nehstina w di bin destn Aoriyan de xem qisaweta Medan b. Xuya ye, ku mirivtiya tn di navbera Medan Man-nayyan de rola xwe lst berhem da, ne ten gel Man-nay mldartir Medan b, bel rber Medan; Deyako ( Diyako ) saln (737-719 b. z) xwe avitib bext destlata Man-nay, da xwe ji destdirjiyn dewleta Aor biparze, pit serkeftina Medam, ikestina dewleta Aor, Man-nay j, di navbna saln (590 580 b. z) de, b parek ji mperetoriya Med(7).

 

Destkeftiyn aristan:

Gava em droka piyn Kurd vedikolin, rastiyek heye, div ji bra nebe, ew j ew e, ku eger ne navn hem axn, ku Kurd j peyda dibin be, hema navn piraniya wan nav xwedaya ne ( Kao, Xorro, Xeld / Xald ), an j navn erdngar ne ( Gotyom, Soparto, Med ), hin caran j navn hinek la ne, ku rbert li welat Kurd kirine ( Lolo, Mtan ). Ev rast gel Man-nay j digire. Heye nav wan navek erdngar be, an j nav lek be, ku serdetsta ln din b, gel ( mebest j gel Man-nay ) bi xwe j ji Got, Lolo Horiyan pk hatiye, di pey re hino hino hukariya Medan li wan bye, ta ku tev li wan bne. Diyakonov tne zimn, ku ahnina Man-nay, ji hla aristan, bajarvan abor de, bye bingeha damezirandina mperetoriya Med di serdema eemn sedsala b. z de(8).

Dewleta Man-nay bi andina liban nn ra ajelan/sewalan, nemaze j hespan, navdar b, nav genim wan snor derbas kirib. Bermayn kevin, yn ji zr, zv, baqil(baqir) hesin, ku li bar gola Urmiy hatine kiifkirin, didine xuyakirin, ku kirina mtal (maden) li bajarn Man-nay gelek pket b, hinern wan kirinan asta bilind ya anda na eristikrat (Jor) dide xuyakirin, hineriya wan ji hinern Orarto Aor j ne kmtir e(9).

B guman, payebilindiya dewleta Man-nay ne b bingeh b, bel entilcnsiya w ya ku civak dewlet bi r ve dibir heb; di nav endamn w entilcnsiyay de grpek heb, her endamek w grp panav ( Hazano ) hildigirt, wateya w j ( hilbijr komel ) an j (rvebir komel) ye; ewana di rvebiriya dewlet de hevpar bn, kar barn giring, wek hevgirdana neteweyn, ku di bin swana delet de ne, bi wan dihate hilpesratin, qedr nirx wan gelek bilin b(10). Berhevdaneke lezok di navbera peyva ( Hazano ) peyva kurd ( Hozan / Hewzan ) de dide xuyakirin, ku rvebirn civaka Man-nay entilcnsiya her hiyar zana b, hevgirdana and di navbera Man-nayyan neviyn Kurd de, tev tperbna bst e sedsalan, nehtib birn.

 

                                                    2. Xeld / Xald ( Orarto )

 

Xeld / Xald k ne?.

Xeld  ( Xald / Xalt / Kat ) komnifsek zagros ye, ji Horiyan ( Xoriyan ) peyda bye, di syemn hezar saln b. z, an j ber w dem de, li deverek, ku pa bi Kurdistan hatiye navkirin, jiya ye. Xeldiyan nav ( Haltu-n ) ango gel xweday Xeld (Ald) li xwe dikirin, welat xwe j bi ( Biyaynl ) binav dikirin. Aoriyan j nav ( Nar / Nayr ) li hin pern welat Xeld kirin, ew perana j devera kurd ya nka ye, ku nav w (emdnan) e, ku li bakur Kurdistan ye. Heye j ev nav ( Nar / Nayr ) ji ber nav la (Nehr)ma be; ew la, ku ex Ubeydulla Nehr; reber orea sala (1880 z) endamek w ye, ku niteciy emdnan b(11).

Piraniya Xeldiyan di navbera ar goln, ku li Kurdistan Ermenistan naskir ne, dijiyan; gola lder, gola Wan, gola Urmiy gola Svan, bajar ( Topa ) y ku li nzk bajar (Wan) y nka ye, paytexta wan b. Pa hin Xeld n li ber em Fert cwar bn. Wlym Langer welat Xeldiyan bi ahnina Wan ( Orarto / Ararat ) bi nav dike, dibje: Snorn Orarto ( Ararat ) bi away pitrast nayne nankirin, l hema bi gelemper, ev ahnin li navbera Qefqas gola Van dikeve mebest ji Van Wan e(12).

Aoriyan welat Xeldiyan bi Orarto ( Oro Artr ) navandin, di szdemn sedsala b. z de ah Aor; elmanser yeken ( 1263 1234 b. z ) da ser navenda welat Kurd y nka ( Bar M, bakur Wan roavay gola Urmiy ), yekemn car nav w welat bi away ( Oro Atr ) di drk de tomar kir, pa ew awa hate guhertin, bi away ( Orarto ) hate nivisandin, wateya konevan ji bo dewletek, ku li bar welat Aor ava b, hilgirt, l di be pkhatin de ji peymana kevin, nav welat Xeldiyan bi away (  Ararat ) hatiye diyarkirin. Ev agahiyn derbas bne, didine xuyakirin, ku ( Xeld, Orarto, Nayr ) hem navn navhilgrek ne(13).

 

Qunaxn nakokiy li dij dewleta Aor:

Gav Xald, wek hzeke konevan ( poltk ) li roavay Asiyay, diyar dibn, Aoriyan hewl didan, da destlata xwe bi her aliyan de fireh bikin, ji bo her hzeke konevan ye dijber ji hol rakin. Ber nka j derbas b, ku ewana her tim dixwastin, ku Man-nayyan Medan, yn ku hemdemn Xaldiyan bn, bixin bi destalata xwe de. Di pergaleke weha de, w gelek normal be, ku bindestxistina Xaldiyan j w hv armanca Aoriya be, v lom j Xald ketin nav ern dirj dijwar li dij lekertariya Aoriya ya hzdar. Mirov dikare dema nakok er Aor Xald li ser du qunaxan parve bike:

Qunaxa yekemn dema navbera saln ( 1275 840 b.z ) digire. Neqn yekemn ah Aor; elmanser yekem, didine xuyakirin, ku w hng destlateke navend li welat Xald tune b, bel ew welat bi ser gelek mrninan de parve bb, wek awa piyn Kurd, di war konevaniy de, her tim ji hev dipijiqn, v lom ikestina wan mrninan li hember dewleta  Aor gelek hsan b, da Aor destn xwe bidin ser welat Xaldiyan, di navbera hrin ahn wan re, nemaze ah Tokolt Nnorta y yekem (   Tukulti Ninurta I  1233 1197 b.z ) Hedad Nrar y duwem ( Adad Nirari 911 890 b.z ) Tokolt Nnorta y duwem ( Tukulti Ninorta II 890 884 b. z ) Aor Nasir Pal duwem ( Ashur Nasir Pal II 883 959 b. z )(14).

Qunaxa duwem navbera saln ( 840 612 b. z ) digire. Rew di v qunax de t guhertin, imk xuyaye ku hrin dijwar yn ahn Aor bi ser welat Orarto de, mrninn Orarto ber bi yekbn de tve dan, da ku destlateke yekane, di bin hzn ahine cengewer de pk bnin. Dewleta Orarto ya yekby, bi xra ah Serdor/ Serdar yekem hate avakirin, yekemn car nav w di belgeyn ah Aoriyan, Aor Nasirpal duwem (883 859 b. z) de diyar b. Ev ah Aor pir hewl da, ku dest xwe bide ser dewleta Orarto, l bi ser neket, wek awa bavpr xwe yn mezin Tglat Bilasir yekem bi ser ketib(15).

Pit mirina Aor Nasirpal duwem, gel Orarto li her dever ser li ber waliyn Aor hilda, hzn xwe dan ser hev hri dane ser Aoriyan, devern xwe yeko-yeko ji dest wan girtin.

elmanser syem ( Shalmanser III 883 859 b. z ) kur Aor Nasirpal duwem, di syemn sala hikumdariya xwe de ( 855 b. z ) de hrieke leker mezin da ser welat Orarto, derbas b Xoboka iyay, ya ku dikeve navbera Wan li bakur Rewandiz li bar, di devern iyay re , heya gha serkaniyn her du emn Dle Fert, li wir, wek piyn xwe, w j  qurban ji bo xwedayan pk kirin. L tev wan hrin giran j, elmanser syem nikarb ahnina Orarto bi tevay hilweanda, ji ber ku n cih w gelek zor dijwar b, v lom j, di pey ikestinn leker re, pir nedi, ew ahnin careke din hza xwe dida ser hev(16).

Hza ahnina Orarto, her di, xurtir dib, destlata Xaldiyan gha snorn dewleta Aor, P re j Xaldiyan xaka Aoriyan, beek li pey y din ji dest wan digirtin, heya ku devern wan yn bakur, ji bakur Sriy de li roava ta em Arars li rohilat ketin bin destlata Orartiyan, nemaze j gava hikumdarn Aor ahine jar bn, wek elmanser arem ( 781 772 b.z ) Aor Dan syem (771 754 b. z) Aor Nrar y pncem (753 746 b. z )(17).

Gava ah Tglat Bilaser syem destlata Aor bi dest xist, ew pilann hilweandina hza ah Xald Serdor duwem raxistin, lema j da ser hevalbendn w yn li bakur Sriy, l Serdor hema bi lez hawara wan. Sala 743 b. z ) hzn Tglat Bilaser Serdor di cengeke germ de r bi ry hevdu bn, Tgrat Bilaser bi ser ket, Serdor j vegeriya Topa; paytexta ahnin, l destgirday nema, bel hza xwe dsan da ser hev, xwe ji bo r bi ryeke din li gel  Aoriyan amade kir(18).

Gava ahn Aor li dij gebna poltk ya Med ( li rohilat Kurdistana nka ) mijl dibn de, ah Xeld Rosa y duwem da ser Aza; ah Men-nay; hevalbend Aoriyan ew iknand, derbas b devern, ku ro bar kurdistan j pey da dibe, peykerek di perestgeha xweday Xeld de, nzk bajarok Mosasr ava kir ( ev bajarok bi Erdn j t navandin, bi gund Micsr re li hev t. Ev gund nka bi 18 Km li bakur Rewandiz dikeve ).

Sergon duwem endn hrian dan ser Orarto; giringtirnn wan hrian ya heytemn b, sal ( 714 b. z ), ku bi serdariya w bi xwe b. W hng ew lekern Rosay duwem iknand bajarok Mosasr kavil, Topaya paytext j dagr kir sotand, hem endamn malbata hikumdar, nemaze j navdarn wan, dl girtin. Gava ev agah gha Rosay duwem, ew bi xenerek xwe kut(19).

Gava Serdor syem destlata Orarto xiste destn xwe, dewleta Orarto di arewa dewleta Aor de digeriya, v lom j atiy xwe dab ser tkiliyn herdu dewletan. Serdor syem j seredan Neyneway, silav li ah Aor banpal (Ashurbanipal 668 626b. z) kir, ew silav, li gor gotina ah Aor, wek awa kurek silav li bav xwe dike b.

Serdor syem ah dewleta Orarto, y her daw b, ew dewleta, ku li ser destn hrivann Skt/Siks( Seythians ) hilweiya, l pit Medan sala ( 612 b. z ) dewleta Aor iknandin, Orarto j kete nav mperetoriya Med(20).

 

Ji aristaniya Orarto:           

Ber nka, me droka Orarto ya poltk, bi kurtah, vekoland, l li ser droka w ya aristan, her du lgervan; y rs Mannov y gurc Melkivl, weha diin, ku ziman orart bi du navan hate navandin; yek ji wan navan wan ye, ku ew ji nav gola Wan hatiye wergirtin, y din j mosasr ye, ku ji nav Mosasr hatiye wergirtin, her du j ji ziman hor (xor) ve nzk bn, l bi rvena dem re, dema destlata Aor li ser wan deveran de, hinek peyvn Sam li ser wan her duwan hukar kirin, Xeldiyan hinek diyardeyn jiyana poltk leker, hinera nivsn parastina belgehan hinek karn wjey ji Aoriya wergirtin(21).

Neqn wan ( ji nav Wan ) yn ku bi tpn mx aor hatine nivisandin, didine xuyakirin, ku karn avakirin, nemaze j y hdrolk, li welat Orarto gelek bi p ketibn, gel y bin erd (erq), ku di dema ah Xeld Mnewa de ji bo avdana zeviy hatib kolandin, yekek ji wan karn avakirin ye. Ava v gel ji kaniyn dora gola Wan dihat, bergeheke fireh, bi dirjiya 75 Km av dida. Wlym Langer dibje, ku ev gel heya nka t xebitandin(22).

Di gel hind, gel Xeld ji bo hinern kirin, nemaze kirina madenan, amade b, metiryaln ji bo v yek, mna hsin, baqil (baqir), zr, qurn qel, ber dest bn.Belgehn Aor didine xuyakirin, ku kirin xebitandina maden li welat Orarto ghab asta gelek bilind(23).

Ji hla ayn de, xweday gel Xeld y netew xweda Xeld( Hald, Ald ) b, ew li gel xweda Tpa ( xweday bahozan y Hor ) xweda Erdn ( xweday Tav roj ) s lingek xweday pk dihan. Ev yeka j naneke din e, li klek nann zimanewan, tqez dike, ku Xeld ji gel Hor ( Xor ) ne(24).

Her weha nav xweday gel Xeld  di peyker, ku ah Mnewa bi boneya kolandina geliy bin erd, ava kirib de diyar bn. Di belgeha w peyker de weha hatiye: Bi prozkirina xweda Xeld, Mnewa kur piwn ev gel ava kir, bi (geliy Mnewa) bi nav kir. Mnewa, bi gewrebna Xeld, b ah hukardar, ah gewre, ah welat Biyaynl, serdest bajar Topa. Mnewa dibje: her kes v kar kavil bike, bikne, ji cih hilke, an j bje min ev gel kiriye, bila Xeld, Teypa, vn hem xweda w biherifnin(25).

 

                                                            3. Med (Medes)

     

Med k ne?  

Nav Med di ziman Aor de bi away Meday (Medai) Emaday (Amadai) Matay (Matai) hatiye, di ziman lam de (Mata-Pe), di ziman Ibr/hibr de (Maday), di faris de (Mada), di yonan de ( Mad/ Md Madoi, Medoi), di ermen de (Mar-k), di Pars de (Mat) hatiye. Di belgehn Aor, yn nehemn sedsala b.z de gelek bi nav Md Medes ), diyar dibe, ku ev gel  ji farisan ve nzk e, li klek welat Aor, ji hla rohilat ve, cwar dibe. Her du ahn Aor; Tglat Bilasir syem ( 745-727 b.z ), Sergon duwem ( 722-705 b.z ) dibjin, ku wan Med bgav dana bac kirin. Belgehn Aor Medan bi Medn metirs dinasnin, weha diin, ku ewana gel l ye, ti caran di bin serdariya ahek de yekbn nedtiye(26).

Lkolnn droka Med vedikolin, weha diin, ku hatina wan van devern, ku di pey re bi Kurdistan hatine naskirin, ji derdora sala 1100 b.z de dest p kir, w hng ewana e l bn, ku federasyonek peyda kiribn. Diyakonov wan lan weha dinavne: Boussi, Magoi, Boudloi, Arizantoi, Strouknates, Paretaknoi. Hrodot j wan weha dinavne:Bouss, Partass, Stirokat, Arzant, Boud Mag. Ziman hem axn w federasyona l hevbn ziman Med bn.

Nivsnn Arak Savrastiyan didine xuyakirin, ku Med ji hla erdngar drok and ve berdewamiya Gotiyan e, ji ber ku Got Med nitevann heman dever ne(27).

 

Nakokiya Med Aor:

Cengn Medan li hember Aor glek dijwar bn. Aor mperetoriya her hzdar b li roavay Asiyay, Medan j her tim av li w yek bn, ku ji destlata w rizgar bibin. ahn Aor dajotin ser wan, ziyann pir mezin bi wan kirin, bajar gundn wan hileandin. Yekemn er navbera Med Aor sala ( 835 b.z ), an j sala ( 837 b.z), di serdema elmanser syem de b. Rast e, ku Aor hinek caran bi ser ketin, l nikarbn Medan bixin bin destlata xwe de(28).

Li derdora nv heytemn sedsal b. z serkek Med jrek derket hol, nav w Deyako/Diyako kur Firaorts ( Phraortes) b, di navbera saln 727 675 b. z de hikum kir). Nav w bi ziman yonan Diyoss ( Deioces ) e, jdern faris j w bi ( Keyqubad ) dinavnin. Ew tevay Medan kom ser hev kirin, xistin bi nav ( federasyona ln Med ), hizra (zihniyet) Meda ji ya lperst guhert ya dewlet, zagon rwresm peyda kirin, bajar Agbatana ( Amdan / Hemedan ) kire paytexta dewlet; ev bajar li cihek qeeng bi xr br b, giringtirn navenda, ku riya herr ya bazirganiya chan t re derbas dib, b.

Pit ku Deyako civaka Med organze kir, federasyona lan bi away ne navend ava kir, dewlet damezirand, leker ava kir, ber xwe da mperetoriya Aor, ser li ber w hilda,  serxwebna dewlet ragihand, ern dijwar ajotin ser mperetoriya Aor. L ah Aor Sergon syem orea Deyako tk bir, ew j sala (715 b. z) dl girt, tev endamn seray sirgun bajar ( Hema ) y li Sriy kir. l Deyako pit demeke ne diyar hate vegerandin bo welat Med, an j zzk w(29).

Med heya dema serk Medan Firaorts kur Deyako di bin destn mperetoriya Aor de dimne. Firaorts di nivsn neqn Bihiston ( bston ) de bi nav Xutert   Xuasrta t bi navkirin, ew di navbera saln ( 674 653 b. z ) hikum kir, ew gelek jr jhat b, ln Medan careke din dane ser hev, kabneyeke serbixwe damezirand, pit ku Smmr/Kmmr (immerians) Siks ( Seythians ) Faris xistin bin destlata Med, da ser Neynewa; paytexta Aor, l Siksan ji pa ve, bi nehn hevbend li gel Aor girdan, li gel wan er Firaorts kirin, v lom hria w tk , bi xwe j hate kutin, Siksan bi v yek ten nekirin, bel dan ser welat Med, di navbera saln ( 653 625 b. z ) de, 28 salan ew bindest kirin(30).

 

Avakirin ketina dewleta Med:

Pit kutina Firaorts, destlat kete destn kur w Key Exsar / Keyxisrew ( 633 584 b. z); nav w di hin jdern din de ( Iksirks ) (Siyaars)e, ew gewretirn ah Med b, bi ser de j rberek zana mirov dewlet y sert b. Ew Med ji bin destn Siks rizgar kir, destlata xwe ji n ve da ser welat Faris, ln koer bi cih kirin, jiyana wan organz kir, zagon pyda kirin, leker li ser bingehn n, ku hinek ji Siksan wergirtibn, ava organz kir, alayn siwaran kirin, trevan siwar ji hevdu cida kirin(31).

Keyxisrew li gel ah Babil Nebopolaser / Nabopolassar ( 627 605 b. z ) li dij dijmin hevbe; dewleta Aor, hevbend girda, sala ( 615 b. z ) da ser w dewlet, Errabxa (Kerkk) j wek navenda kar barn ceng ji xwe re nan kir. Leker xwe heya bajar paytext Neynewa ajot, l gava berxwedaneke zor li p w rab, ew ber xwe da paytexta ayn (Aor) pit bexwedaneke hzdar xiste bin destn xwe. W hng ah Aor; Sarak kur Aor Panpal xwe kut, ap/man w Aor Opalt na w girt, tev alayek ji leker xwe vekiiyan bajar Herran, li benda alkariya hevalbend xwe; ah Misir  Emazs ma.

Emazs hema bi lez alkariya leker ji hevalbendn xwe yn Aor re ver kir, l pit end cengan di vabera herdu saln ( 612 605 b. z ) de hevbendiya Aor Misir li hember ya Med Babil tk , p re j yekek ji gewretitrn mperetoriyn chana kevin bi carek ji hol rab, Keyxisrew j devern, ku netewn hind-ewrup t de li klek Qefqas cih girtibn, dane ser hev, hri da ser dewleta Orarto, ew j tev li dewleta Med kir. P re j roavay Asiyay di navbera ar dewletan de hate parvekirin: Dewleta Med, ya Bilil a n, ya Ldiya li Asiyaya bik, dewleta Misir(32).

Keyxisrew Siks j xistin bin destlata xwe, l her ku derfet l dihat ewana ser li ber w hildidan, lema w ajot ser wan ew j bi hla roava de reviyan, xwe sprtin ahnina Ldiya li Asiyaya bik.

Keyxisrew ji lyats; ah Ldiya xwast, ku wan Siksn reviyane, vegerne, l w ev daxwaz nepejirand, v lom Medan sala (590 b. z) dane ser Ldiyay, e salan ceng dom kir, l lhatinek peyda b, k sala (585 b. z) piya tav (roj) hate girtin, herdu al j weha tgihtin, ku ev byer xeyda xweda ye, v lom lihev hatin bn hevalbendn hev, Estiyag kur Keyxisrew Eryes kea lyats ji xwe wek jin an, p re j herdu ahan lihev kirin, ku em Hels ( Qizil Errimaq ) snor navbera herdu dewletan be(33).

Pit mirina Keyxisrew sala (585b. z) kur w Estiyag (Estiyags) na w di navbera saln (584- 550 b. z) de girt, li gor lihavhatina Med, Babil Ldiya atiy baskn xwe dane ser roavay Asiyay, p re j bazirgan ge b, dewlemend pir b, entilcsiya Med dest bi kf kirin, her , nakokiyn navxwey r dan, tevdrn Estiyag yn ewt j bn sedema wendakirina hevbendiya li gel Babil li hla roava, rdana knn ah Ermebistan li hla bakur. ah farisan; Qore duwem kur Qembz diya w Mandana kea Estiyag ev derfet ji xwe bi kar ann, hevbend li gel Napond ah Babil Yrwant hakim ermenistan girdan, sala (552 b. z) li hember Estiyag rabn(34).

Tevdrn zordar yn Estiyag xeyda hinek endamn entilcsiya Med bi ser w de herikandibn, yek ji wan Harpag ( Harpagos) mezin serdarn lkeran b, ku hin ayndarn mezin dewlemendn fewdal hin rbern Med qayl kirin, ku xwe bidin klek Qore, cengeke mezin di navbera herduwan de peyda b, li daw j bi sedma xiniziya Harpak gurpa w, Estiyag di ceng de ikest, wek dl hate girtin, p re j dewleta Med serxwebna xwe wenda kir, ji derdora sala (550 b. z) de b parek ji mperetoriya Exmn(35).    

 

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Jder avkan:

(1)  Cemal Red: Diyarbna Kurd di drok de, be 2, r 484- 485. Ebdil-Hemd Zayd: Rohilata nemir, r 562.

(2)  Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 486, 500.

(3)   Ebdil-Hemd Zayd: Jdera ber, r 578.

(4)   Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 488. Ebdil-Hemd Zayd: Jdera ber, r 562-563.

(5)   Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 489.Diyakonov: Med, r 199.

(6)   Diyakonov: Jdera ber, r 199. Ebdil-Hemd Zayd: Jdera ber, r 578.

(7)   Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 491-493. Diyakonov: Jdera ber, r 197.

(8)   Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 494. Diyakonov: Jdera ber, r 143.

(9)   Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 494.

(10) Diyakonov: Jdera ber, be 2,  r 169.

(11) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2,  r 131-134.

(12) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, bes 1, r  164, be 2, r 131, 132. Wlym Langer: Droka chan ya fireh, be 1, r 87.

(13) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 131-133.

(14) Wlym Langer: Firehtirn droka chan, be 1, r 88. Jront Vlhlm: Hor, drok aristaniya wan, r 79 82. Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2,r 135.

(15) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 132, 135.

(16) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 125 127. Mihemed Beyyom Mehran: Droka raq ya kevin, r 372.

(17)  Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 127.

(18) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 128.

(19) Cemal Red: Jder rpela ber.

(20) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 128 129. Mihemed Beyyom Mehran: Jdera ber, r 419.

(21) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 122, 131, 163, 164.

(22) Wlym Langer: Jdera ber, be 1, r 87. Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 139.

(23) Bongard Lvn: Li derdora Rohilat kevin, r 532.

(24) Wlym Langer: Jdera ber, be 1, r 87.

(25) Cemal Red: Jdera ber, be 2, r 141.

(26) Diyakonov: Jdera ber, r 72. H. G. Wlz: Nann droka mirovaniy, be2, r 350.

(27) Diyakonov: Jdera ber, r 143. Hrodot: Droka Hrodot, r 80. Arak Savrastiyan: Kurd Kurdistan, r 32. Dlaport: Welat navbera du eman, r 308.

(28) Diyorant: roka aristaniy, be 2, r 399. Diyakonov: Jdera ber, r 277.

(29) Diyakonov: Jdera ber: r 28, 143, 146. Dlaport: Jdera ber, r 308. Dyorant: Jdera ber, be 2, r 400.

(30) Taha Baqir hinekn din: Droka ran ya kevin: r 39 40. Mehrad Izady: Kurd.(bi ziman ngilz), r 32.

(31) Taha Baqir hinekn din: Jdera ber, r 40. Dyorant: Jdera ber, be 2 r 400. Mehrdad Izady: Jdera ber, r 32.

(32) Hrodot:Jdera ber, r 80. Dlaport: Jdera ber, r 320. Diyakonov: Jdera ber, r 284, 295, 296.

(33) Hrodot: Jdera ber; r 63, 64. Diyakonov: Jdera ber, r 302. Harv Porter: Kurtiya droka kevin, r 87.

(34) Diyorant: Jdera ber, be 2, r 402. Merwan El-Midewwer: Ermen di navbera drok re, r 119.

(35) Hrodot: Jdera ber: r 96, 259. Anton Mortkat: Droka Rohilat nzk ya kevin, r 350, 367. Diyorant: Jdera ber, be 2, r 410.

 

 

 

 

                               

 

 

 

 

 

 

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